In 1873, the Clay Street Fire burned for 10 hours and destroyed 113 buildings. The fire started in a factory when a spark from the boiler furnace hit flammable material. It caused an estimated $750,000 in damage and was the biggest fire in the city until The Great Baltimore Fire of 1904. (Baltimore Sun file photo)
1866: Ulysses S. Grant was promoted to the rank of general of the Army.
1909: French aviator Louis Bleriot flew across the English Channel in a monoplane, traveling from Calais to Dover in 37 minutes.
1946: The United States detonated an atomic bomb at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific in the first underwater test of such a device.
1976: On the surface of Mars, Viking I’s robotic arm, which had balked in an earlier test, was found ready to begin picking up soil samples.
Compiled by Jessica D. Evans and Paul McCardell.