Rachel Carson holds her book “Silent Spring,” which prompted congressional investigation into the use of pesticides. (AP file photo, 1963)

As the nation prepares to celebrate another Earth Day, it’s appropriate to recall Rachel Carson, a guiding spirit of environmentalism and transplanted Marylander whose book “Silent Spring” stirred the nation by warning against profligate use of pesticides and other toxic chemicals.

Carson, who died 50 years ago this week, grew up in Springdale, Pa., outside of Pittsburgh, and majored in biology at what is now Chatham University. She then came to Baltimore, where she earned a master’s degree in zoology at the Johns Hopkins University and taught briefly at Hopkins and the University of Maryland before taking a job with the federal Bureau of Fisheries.

She made her debut as a professional writer with an occasional series of freelance features in The Baltimore Sun about fish, wildlife and the outdoors. “It’ll be shad-time soon,” read the headline on her first article, which appeared March 1, 1936. Another touted — somewhat prematurely, it turned out — the promise of oyster farming in the Chesapeake Bay. Yet another celebrated the mysterious life cycle of eels.


Rachel Carson with a feline friend and her 1951 book, “The Sea Around Us.” (A. Aubrey Bodine, Baltimore Sun file photo, 1954)

While still working for the federal government, Carson went on to publish three books about the sea and the wonders beneath it, two of which became best sellers. The financial success enabled her to retire and pursue writing full time.

Her last book, “Silent Spring,” was inspired by reports from biologists at the federal Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and elsewhere of bird kills and reproductive problems that seemed linked to pesticide exposure. As a warning against the heedless use of toxic chemicals, she painted an apocalyptic vision of a future without the familiar springtime songs of robins, warblers and other birds.

When it hit the bookstands in 1962, Carson’s book drew fire from the chemical industry, which accused her of alarmism. But it gained acclaim elsewhere, and spurred congressional hearings and a federal report urging limits on pesticide use. Ensuing years saw the passage of a series of laws aimed at protecting the environment. And in 1972, the once widely sprayed pesticide DDT was banned in the United States because of its documented harm to bird populations and concerns about human exposure.

Carson did not live to see those changes. Already quietly battling breast cancer when “Silent Spring” was published, she died on April 14, 1964, at her home in Silver Spring. She was 57.

—Tim Wheeler  (

Read more stories about green living, the environment, energy and conservation at Tim Wheeler’s blog, B’More Green.